Treating Adipocytes |

2 mins

Treating Adipocytes

Mechanical stimulation can have impressive effects on treating adipose tissue. The team at LPG explains how

We are facing a global obesity epidemic, the causes of which are multifactorial and complex. Tackling obesity requires taking into consideration biology, physiology, ecology and societal environment. The increased prevalence of obesity contributes very directly to the appearance of chronic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and various cardiovascular diseases. An obese person has an excess of adipose tissue (AT) and obesity is a disorder of the “fat organ”, affecting many functions. The adipose cell (adipocyte) is one of the important building blocks of our AT. We have between 40 and more than 100 billion of them. Scientific data has drawn attention to adipocyte developmental abnormalities in childhood and adolescence. There is also significant gender disparity in the distribution of fat mass, as well as the functional heterogeneity of adipocytes according to their anatomical location.

The AT is not limited to adipocytes exclusively. It is a complex tissue in which mature adipocytes involved in the regulation of lipid metabolism and the production of some hormones can be distinguished. Aheterogeneous cell population constitutes the vascular stromal fraction (VSF).

It contains adipocyte progenitor cells, preadipocytes and various vascular and immune system cells. The study of AT vascularisation and innervation has revealed that fat deposits are not homogeneously irrigated and innervated. The extra-cellular matrix (ECM) that provides the structure of the AT contains various types of collagens, fibronectin, laminin, elastins and proteoglycans. There is significant remodelling during the development of fat mass.

The phenomenon can go as far as the appearance of fibrotic areas in the AT of obese people. Studies underline a major role of the ECM in fat mass expansion and on adipocyte metabolism.

Adipocytes play an essential role in storing energy from nutrients such as glucose and fatty acids (from ingested food) in the form of triglycerides; this is lipogenesis. Excessive storage leads to increased adipocyte size and expansion of fat mass. These adipocyte lipid reserves can be mobilised as needed through lipolysis, a complex process ensuring hydrolysis of triglycerides stored in the lipid droplet of the white adipocyte. It induces the release of non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glycerol by that cell. Lipolysis is a specific function of white adipocytes, activated by prolonged fasting and physical activity.

How does mechanical stimulation Endermologie work on the adipocyte?

A study by Professor Max Lafontan, published in the journal Obesity Facts, showed the adipocyte, when in the lipogenesis mode (storage of fat), has more alpha 2 receptors, which inhibit lipolysis (fat release). When we use the mechanical stimulation of Endermologie, we increase another good receptor called the beta receptor, which helps release the lipids, sugars and cholesterol out of the adipocyte. These are then released into the blood stream and into muscle as energy.

Professor Lafontan’s study has shown that mechanical stimuli applied with a mechano-stimulation device Endermologie on female femoral AT were able to have an impact on adipocyte reactivity: +70% lipolysis, in total respect of cell integrity. Mechanical massage of the AT promotes a better lipolytic reactivity of adipocytes and vascular vasodilatory responses. Recovery of a higher lipolytic efficiency in an AT known for its reaction inertia could be of an important benefit if combined with physical activity training programmes, known to enhance mobilisation of non-esterified fatty acids from adipocytes and their oxidation by active skeletal muscle.

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This article appears in October 2023

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October 2023
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